Opinion: Underage drinking increases the risk for addiction, says psychologists
By Frank Bartolomeo – (February 14, 2017) The team of psychologists, therapists, and educators at the Southfield Center applaud the public health campaign initiated by the Thriving Youth Task Force of The Community Fund of Darien. By any measure, binge drinking during adolescence is a serious public health concern with both immediate and serious consequences for teenagers and their families and with long-term costs to our society.
Neuroscientific research over the last 10 years has conclusively demonstrated that alcohol not only affects the developing adolescent brain differently from an adult brain, but can interfere with normal brain functioning. Supporting this finding are these facts: Nine out of 10 people who abuse or are addicted to nicotine, alcohol, or other drugs began using these substances before they were 18 and the risk of addiction decreases each year that substance use is delayed during the period of adolescent brain development (fully completed by approximately age 25).
Factors that initiate and perpetuate teen drinking are social norms, including parental attitudes and beliefs that alcohol consumption during adolescence is normative and expected. Analogous to our former erroneous acceptance of cigarette smoking, this acceptance of alcohol consumption in adolescence is dangerous. Furthermore, a dramatic shift in public attitudes and understanding will be critical to prevention.
As a practitioner, I have never heard a parent excuse cigarette smoking as “normal experimentation” or as an expected rite of passage. Many teenagers and college students regard alcohol consumption as a right or even an entitlement. Unlike cigarette smoking, there has been no historical suppression of the science that clearly demonstrates the immediate dangers, long-term, negative health implications, and societal costs of alcohol use during adolescence.
The research, however, on the acute and long term consequences of underage drinking has yet to be sufficiently disseminated and integrated into our public consciousness. Studies have repeatedly shown that parents’ attitude toward drinking often predicts if their children will drink.
I have not met many parents who gave their teens overt permission to drink alcohol, although it could be argued that the willingness to host teen parties where drinking is involved is a form of encouragement. More often than not, parents give ambiguous messages to their teens such as “I do not want you to drink, but just tell me if you do so,” or “I would rather have you drink in the house than go out to parties and drink.” In exchange for honesty and transparency, these parents inadvertently forfeit their ability to discipline or impose restrictions when their teenagers use or abuse alcohol. These same parents are often in a bind when the drinking, in their opinion, becomes excessive.
What ensues is a ponderous debate about how much is too much. I have rarely met a teenager who did not interpret an ambiguous message about drinking as tacit permission to do so, or at least unspoken tolerance for underage drinking.
Instead of taking the well-worn approach of focusing exclusively on teenagers, the campaign is also focused on parents and other adults who have directly and indirectly communicated permissive or ambiguous attitudes about underage drinking —attitudes that were generally formed during their own teenage years and then carried forward. It is time that we adults hold our implicit beliefs about underage drinking up to the science that did not exist in our youth. Drinking alcohol, like cigarette smoking, during the teen years dramatically increases the risk for addiction and long term health problems.
Taking issue with the drinking age; say some MDs, the law may target the wrong teen behavior
July 15, 2014 – CNN– On July 17, 1984, President Ronald Reagan signed into law the National Minimum Drinking Age Act, which withheld a percentage of highway funds from any state that didn’t raise the minimum drinking age to 21. Thirty years later, there is a group of people with Ph.D.s and M.D.s who take issue with the drinking age. They say, from a scientific standpoint, that the law may target the wrong teen behavior.
The law came into being to solve a serious public health problem. Before the minimum drinking age law, 16- to 20-year-olds were the most common drunken drivers.
When the drinking age was raised, the number of fatal crashes involving a young driver dropped significantly, from 61 percent in 1982 to 31 percent in 1995. It went down more for that age group than any older age group.
But while the law did have a significant impact on drinking and driving, it did not stop kids from drinking. In fact, it may have made drinking even more appealing to teens, whose brains naturally seek out risk more than adult brains do — without considering what the consequences might be.
A survey of students at 56 colleges across the country just a couple years after the legislation passed found that “significantly more under-age students drank compared to those of legal age.” This study concluded that “the increase in purchase age appears to have been not only ineffective but actually counter-productive, at least in the short run.”
The definition of adulthood is not clear-cut when it comes to science. “There’s no magic that happens physically to someone when they are 21 as compared to age 18,” said Dr. William Graf, a professor of pediatric neurology at Yale.
The American Psychological Association says that drawing a single line between adolescence and adulthood under the law is at odds with developmental science. They say adolescence usually begins about age 10 and ends around 19, but really it depends; maturity is based on an individual’s experiences.
Current data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health and Monitoring the Future, the two official surveys that monitor such topics, suggest that roughly 65 percent of college students (generally aged 18 to 22) drink alcohol in any given month.
Most of the college students who choose to drink are binge drinking, according to a study out of Harvard. Seven out of 10 are consuming five or more drinks in a row.
Binge drinking can have a damaging impact on a developing brain. Evidence suggests that heavy exposure to alcohol can cause irreversible brain damage and cognitive deficits, including memory problems.
Scientists say the teenage years are one of the most important times for brain development, next to infancy. Neurons in the brain are growing and strengthening, connections are developing to allow the brain to transmit information faster and allow the brain to process more complex thoughts, and the brain goes through a kind of pruning process to eliminates synapses that are infrequently used.
All this brain development has a huge impact on a person’s development and mental well-being. It also means that young people have lapses in judgment during this time period as they try to figure out how to be adults.
The limbic system, the part of your brain that is involved in processing social and emotional information, develops early in adolescents. But the prefrontal cortex, the part of the brain that involves judgment, impulse control and abstract thought and the ability to anticipate the consequences of your actions, isn’t fully shaped until your late 20s.
Abigail A. Baird, associate professor of psychology at Vassar College, has spent her career trying to understand what happens with the typical adolescent brain. Baird argues that if anything, in terms of biology, the age limits on driving and drinking should be flipped.
“If I were queen for the day, I would move the drinking age to 18 and maybe not let them drive until they were 21, at least not with other people besides your parents in the car,” Baird said.
She likes the idea of graduated driver’s license laws that slowly let young drivers have more responsibility as they get more practice in the car. This is based on the theory that they will learn how to avoid accidents as they gain experience. The statistics back her up. Before states introduced graduated licensing systems during the first six months of solo driving, newly licensed drivers were about eight times more likely to be involved in fatal crashes than more experienced drivers.
“We all know adolescents are obsessed with learning from their peers. … Adolescents learn based on experience. They are not good at learning abstractly; that’s what changes a lot between 18 and 21. When you get older, you can learn from reading stories about people and by really feeling for other people.”
Baird believes that society could use the way young people learn to help them learn how to drink responsibly at an earlier age. If drinking were less of a clandestine affair, perhaps a teen’s peers could model more appropriate behavior for younger participants. She says it’s important to learn how to behave around alcohol.
“Find me a business dinner that you will go to where you are not offered alcohol,” Baird challenged. “In our society, you do need to know what do around it and how much you can handle.”
Trends and fads of alcohol packaging may make it easier for teens to acquire alcoholic beverages says consultant
Prevention Consultant with Department of Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Services wants community members to be aware of new trends and fads regarding underage drinking. Are they making it easier for the underage to get a hold of alcohol, she says
New trends in drinking include eyeballing – putting a shot of alcohol in your eye. “There’s videos out there of people putting it in their eye,” Nienhius said.
There’s Chilly Willies – sucking alcohol up your nose. Some even soak tampons in alcohol and then insert them. Drinking hand sanitizer? “Yes, it has happened,” Nienhius said.
“We have to be very cognizant about what’s going on because if we as adults don’t understand what’s happening, you better believe that the kids know what’s going on.”
Michelle Nienhius presented an array of alcoholic beverages, and urged concerned parents to visit their local grocery stores, convenience stores and party shops. “Some of this stuff is very, very hard to recognize – is it an alcoholic beverage or not?,” Nienhius said.
“For instance with the (hard) lemonade here – it looks exactly like lemonade,” she said. “When you pour some of these drinks into a cup, they look exactly like fruit punch, Gatorade, orange soda … drinks that we drink on a daily basis.” Many beverages come in containers that contain 4 or 5 standard drink servings, Nienhius said. “Very, very potent,” she said. “You’ve got 12, 22, 32, 40 and 60 ounce containers.” The new container sizes encourage greater consumption, she said.
She called Four Loko “a binge drink in a can.” A can of Four Loko is 24 ounces, a can of beer typically 12 ounces. Four Loko has 12 percent alcohol by volume. A beer typically is 5 percent alcohol by volume. Four Loko and similar drinks are pop-tops, she said.
“That tells me I’m supposed to drink it right away, right?” Nienhius said. “You don’t pop a pop-top, drink a little, set it in the fridge and then go back to it two days later.” After receiving criticism, Four Loko company officials have announced that they’re changing to screwtop cans.
Some drinker even funnel the high-alcohol drinks, Nienhius said. Funnel allows drinkers to consume high volumes of alcohol in just seconds.
“Cocktails in a pouch” are easy to transport and hard to detect at glance, she said. Companies are marketing alcoholic whipped cream, popsicles and ice cream.
Some companies sell their products in metal bottles – indistinguishable from metal water bottles once the label is removed.
Some companies are appealing to childhood nostalgia – adult chocolate milk and Hello Kitty-branded wines, for example.
Nienhius showed examples of soda cans, flip-flops, binoculars and even bras modified to hide booze.
Information on drinking games, including Beer Pong, are readily accessible on the Internet, with no age restrictions set up to keep the info from young people.
“Power Hour” is a popular game where drinkers take a drink every minute for an hour – leading to alcohol poisoning or even death.
Alcohol and energy drinks are a dangerous mix. “For awhile the alcohol companies we’re actually prepackaging the two together, and they were selling a prepackaged alcohol energy drink,” Nienhius said. “Thank goodness, the heat got turned up on that and now that is not legal, they cannot do that. But the train’s already left the station. The phenomenon is already out there, that it’s fun, cool, whatever, to mix alcohol and energy drinks. You can only imagine how dangerous a concoction that can be.”
The combination mixes a stimulant and a depressant together, she said. One danger is that stimulants extend the drinking time by keeping drinkers awake.
Alcoholic drinks are heavily marketed via social networking. “And who’s on social networking all the time?” Nienhius said. “Our young people.” Screening processes on beverage websites are not very effective, she said. “A lot of these age verification systems aren’t foolproof whatsoever,” Nienhius said.
“We know if we can delay folks from using alcohol, we can lessen the chance that they’re going to have issues of alcohol dependency as they get older and later in life,” she said.
UNT seeks to deter underage drinking after incident
DENTON Texas – 02/07/13 – After an accident in a fraternity house, UNT has placed a ban on alcohol at all Greek Life events while the Dean of Students leads a task force to promote the responsible and legal use of alcohol. In addition, UNT Police have obtained warrants to arrest seven individuals for furnishing alcohol to minors.